Diarrhea occurs when increases the proportion of water contained in the stool, increasing the daily faecal weight removed for more than 250 g.
The urgency to go to the bathroom, inability to hold stool or multiple evacuations may be associated with diarrhea, but are not necessarily synonymous, as can happen with normal stool consistency.
Acute diarrhea starts suddenly and lasting less than three weeks, in most cases, show improvement within three to five days.
Chronic diarrhea occurs for a period longer than 3-4 weeks.
Causes of diarrhea
The intestines are responsible for absorbing food and fluid intake as well as those produced by the digestive tract. Of the total produced, up to 9 liters per day, the intestines reabsorb all but 100 to 200 ml eliminated with feces.
The causes of diarrhea are numerous, ranging from acute and chronic diarrhea. But all causes change the intestinal function, causing an increased volume of water in the stool
Causes of acute diarrhea
- Most of acute diarrhea is caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites.
- In these infectious agents, certain substances alter the absorption and / or intestinal secretion, such as laxatives or several adverse effects of drugs, causing diarrhea.
- The use of various antibiotics can lead to change the intestinal flora resulting in diarrhea.
Causes of chronic diarrhea
- Lack of lactase, an enzyme that digests the milk;
- Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel causing chronic diarrhea;
- Infections and intestinal parasites;
- Lymphoma and bowel cancer;
- Celiac disease;
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome;
- Drugs can lead to chronic diarrhea when its use is prolonged or repeated as quinidine, colchicine, cimetidine, NSAIDs, antibiotics, tamsulosin, lactulose, antacids, laxatives, and many others. Certain chemotherapy drugs such as anti-cancer methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 5-fluorouracil and can lead to similar problem.
- Alcohol, especially the abuse;
- Actinic enteritis secondary to…