A state visit typically includes a banquet with the Queen and many have voiced concerns about such pomp and ceremony being extended to President Trump.
Mr Khan said: “State visits are different from a normal visit and at a time when the President of the USA has policies that many in our country disagree with, I am not sure it is appropriate for our government to roll out the red carpet.”
Mr Trump accepted the Queen’s invitation for him to travel to Britain on a state visit when Theresa May visited Washington in January.
But the prospect of a state visit caused much controversy and the White House later confirmed the visit had been delayed until 2018 but no explanation was given.
The delay comes amid concerns that there will be mass protests against Mr Trump during his visit.
According to a transcript of a conversation between Mr Trump and Mrs May, leaked at the weekend, the President has been concerned at the reception he would receive in the UK.
He reportedly told Mrs May: “When I know I’m going to get a better reception, I’ll come and not before.”
Mr Khan added: “If someone has views that I think can be changed I am ready to play my role.
“If you somehow think it is not possible to be a Muslim and a proud westerner I am happy to disabuse you of that idea, whether you are a reporter for CNN or Donald Trump.”
Mr Trump previously challenged the London Mayor to take an IQ test after he responded to the proposed travel ban against people from a group of predominantly Muslim countries entering the US.
He said: “He doesn’t know me, hasn’t met me, doesn’t know what I’m all about. I think they were very rude statements and, frankly, tell him I will remember those statements. They are very nasty statements.
“When he won I wished him well. Now, I don’t care about him.”
After the London Bridge terrorist attack Mr Trump attacked Mr Khan after he told Londoners there was “no reason to be alarmed” by an increased police presence on the streets.
Earlier this year, more than 1.8million people signed a petition seeking to block President Trump’s UK trip over fears that it would “cause embarrassment to Her Majesty the Queen”.
In April, Boris Johnson defended the invitation and said: “Whatever you may think of the president, don’t forget that the Queen has, over the last few decades, been prevailed upon to host all sorts of people in Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace.
“I think it’s wholly right that the president should come.”